photo of a box of fruits and vegetablesA recent study led by MUSC professor David P. Turner, Ph.D. finds that lifestyle habits such as diet and exercise could affect the progression of cancer and the rate of survival, but so could race. According to the study published in Cancer Research in May, our bodies have to metabolize food to obtain the sugars we need, thus leaving behind a reactive-metabolite waste product. These leftovers are referred to as advanced glycation end-products (AGE), and this study addresses the apparent correlation between AGE levels and the prevalence of age-related diseases among non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. 

High levels of AGE are associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s, and cancer. These levels are highest in African American men with prostate cancer—they are 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with this cancer and twice as likely to die from it than non-Hispanic whites. Consumption of sugar and processed food can contribute to AGE levels. Food preparation (i.e., browning) also plays a large role in these levels. They are higher in the West, where the diet commonly consists of red meat, refined grains, and high sugar and fatty foods.

 When analyzing serum from cancer patients, Turner found that AGE levels were significantly higher in patients with cancer than those without. Breast and prostate immortalized cancer cell lines grew more, migrated farther, and invaded more when treated with AGE. In conjunction with higher AGE levels, African Americans have more C-reactive protein (CRP), making them more susceptible to chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is one of the key factors implicated in the development of cancer, along with oxidative stress, an increased immune response, and the presence of AGE.

AGE cannot be completely eliminated, but levels of circulating AGE can be lowered. Simply changing lifestyle habits can slow down the accumulation of AGE in the body. Avoid food with high protein, sugar, and fat, as well as processed foods. Then increase your intake of natural grains, fruits, and vegetables. Change the way you prepare your food by cooking meats at a lower temperature for a longer period of time, skipping the browning step of a dish. You can also replace high-sugar, oil-based marinades with lemon juice, vinegar, and tomato juice. The last big step of lowering your AGE levels is exercise. A sedentary lifestyle only allows for more AGE to accumulate.